So I recently did an install with a client. They had some pretty specific needs when it comes to the security on their sites and I thought I would share a few of the things that I learned along the way. In fact, much of this appeared to work one way in previous versions of Windows and no longer works the same.
The first thing is to mention that although some of this is already documented in Alex Shyba’s blog post , there were gotchas that I didn’t realize and this actually addresses a situation in which your CD server doesn’t have access to the domain. I thought I’d share this step by step for the people like me who are developers but aren’t network admins and want a straightforward guide.
First thing is to spell out is our specifications.
- Need to set up both a CM and a CD server on different servers
- CM server located in the domain and needs to use AD for Sitecore back-end access
- CD server is going to reside in the DMZ outside the domain with NO POSSIBILITY of setting up a trust
- We will have a couple of different web databases (one for a preview version of the site), but this is completely optional to configure
- SQL server is the same for both servers and resides inside the domain network and will be accessible from DMZ on a non-traditional specific port only
- Security is VERY tight and there is absolutely no possibility of having any connection strings in plain text anywhere in the solution code
Now, as part of the prep, a domain user was created for the purposes of the Sitecore sites. Our approach was to set things up on the database first. You can use the Sitecore installer for DB only, but the only access I had was via SQL Management studio remotely logged in with an SA account with anything I needed done directly on the server being done via my verbal instructions. We opted to just do the install manually, so there may be some back-end sysadmin stuff that was done that I am not aware of, but I’ll try to outline this stuff, step by step. Here’s what we did.
Set up Database Users
Since there are 2 different instances that will be accessing the database, 1 using Windows Authentication and 1 using SQL Authentication, I configured both users at the same time and with the same permission set (almost). So the first thing is that the domain user (ad\CMUser) was added as a windows user with limited access to the box. At the same time, a local windows login was created as well with limited rights, including that they could not change their password and that they didn’t have remote log in rights to the server. We added both users as SQL logins and mapped out the DB privileges:
CMUser and CDUser – Core : db_datareader, db_datawriter, public, aspnet_Membership_BasicAccess, aspnet_Membership_FullAccess, aspnet_Membership_ReportingAccess, aspnet_Profile_BasicAccess, aspnet_Profile_FullAccess, aspnet_Profile_ReportingAccess, aspnet_Roles_BasicAccess, aspnet_Roles_FullAccess,aspnet_Roles_ReportingAccess
CMUser only – Master : db_datareader, db_datawriter, public
CMUser only – Web (Preview) : db_datareader, db_datawriter, public
CMUser and CDUser – Web (Production) : db_datareader, db_datawriter, public
CMUser and CDUser – Analytics : db_datareader, db_datawriter, public
We also had to edit each of the databases to provide our users with Execute rights for the databases.
Configuring the Content Management Webserver
The first thing is that you’re going to need to set the ad user with the right privileges on the web server. The first thing I did was to add this user to the IIS_WPG group. Now this user group may vary depending on the version of windows and IIS that you’re using, so you may need to check the naming on this.
Next thing was to actually install Sitecore. This is pretty straight forward and we actually used the installer for this. Don’t worry too much about the database part of the installer since we’re going to change all of that anyway. I know that it appears to need a valid login, so you can put in the SA or whatever login you have to get passed this part and change it later. Since this is a Sitecore 6.5 site, we went with setting the app pool to run in Integrated mode using .Net 4.0.
Once the install is done, we’ll need to configure things. Now, there are 3 parts to why we’re using the AD user for everything.
- The first thing is that we want to run the AppPool as a specific user, which places all the security in the hands of IT, rather than having that information accessible to developers.
- In order to use a trusted connection when accessing the databases, it uses the app pool identity and windows authentication.
- Regardless of database connections, if using AD, you still need to access the LDAP and if the app pool user is an AD user, you don’t need to put user/pass in the provider declaration.
So, to start, in order to give a custom user the proper levels of access to run as the app pool user, we used the aspnet_regiis.exe tool to set the user as a system account. This is accomplished by running the aspnet_regiis.exe command with the -ga switch and the fully qualified domain name like so:
C:\Windows\Microsoft.NET\Framework64\v4.0.30319\aspnet_regiis.exe -ga ad\CMUser
You should see this where the blurry part is the domain\user name:
To change the app pool user, looking at the properties for the App Pool, click the Advanced Settings and click the button by next to the identity. You would select the option for Custom and then put in the domain\user along with the password. Once you do that, this site will be running in the context of your AD user and since our AD user also has access to the SQL box and databases, we can change the connection strings as well. They should look something like this given the above server configuration:
<add name="analytics" connectionString="Trusted_Connection=Yes;Data Source=MyDatabase;Database=Sitecore_analytics"/>
<add name="core" connectionString="Trusted_Connection=Yes;Data Source=MyDatabase;Database=Sitecore_Core"/>
<add name="master" connectionString="Trusted_Connection=Yes;Data Source=MyDatabase;Database=Sitecore_Master"/>
<add name="web" connectionString="Trusted_Connection=Yes;Data Source=MyDatabase;Database=Sitecore_Web"/>
<add name="web" connectionString="Trusted_Connection=Yes;Data Source=MyDatabase;Database=Sitecore_Web_Prod"/>
Configuring the Active Directory Module
If you have set things up right, you should now be able to browse the website and log in with the admin user. Now, let’s get things set up to use the AD module. The first part is to install the AD package and there’s nothing out of the ordinary about that. That simply puts the files and items in place and configuring things is will be the next step and is actually very easy when the app pool user is an AD user. Most of this stuff is covered very well in the AD documentation, but I’ll just touch on some things that aren’t covered and maybe just the steps I took.
The hardest part, I thought, is getting the right connection string. It’s very helpful to download and install an LDAP browser. I recommend Softerra. They have a light weight, free version that actually has live LDAP servers pre-installed for you to browse and get a feel for what you’re looking for. If you’re on a domain, it also has the ability of looking up what domain you’re on and helping you connect to it so you can see what your own connection string should be. It’s also very good at helping to create your connection string because it actually maps it out for you and is especially helpful if you want to use custom filters, which is great when your users are in one area and groups are in another and you don’t want to have to pull in the whole directory.
Getting your connection string is as simple as creating a new Profile. This brings up a wizard. If you click the ‘Lookup Servers…’ button, it’ll go find the servers that are available to you… which, if you’re logged in to the domain, finds your domain controllers.
You might have several to choose from, so you may need to check with a sysadmin, but in my personal experiences, any of them worked. Once you choose one, you will have to set the base DN. Click the “Fetch Base DN’s” and it’ll create some strings for you to choose from. I’d suggest that if you’re not sure which to use, just go with using the one that looks something like your domain with a DC= before each part of your domain name. For example, DC=mydomain,DC=com if your domain is mydomain.com. After selecting your credentials (you can start off with just choosing the option for the currently logged in user), you can now browse your LDAP and work out the exact connection string. Now, as I mentioned above, the AD module uses groups and users and if they’re in 2 different areas, just find the highest common denominator for your connections. We can user Custom Filters for filtering the proper groups and users; this is only for a connection to the LDAP. You can then, if you’re using Softerra, simply right click on the folder for where you want to get the connection string from and choose properties. At the bottom, you’ll see URL and you can copy that whole part as the connection string. The key things to remember are that you need to start the connection string with ldap:// , you should also use a fully qualified domain name and port followed by a slash and the rest will be the full path to a location where the users AND groups are at. It should look something like this where the OU entries are before the DC and are in order that go up the hierarchy. You would then need to add a connection string for the LDAP server in your connection strings file like this (name is whatever you want to name it and can be your domain or another name of your choice):
<add name="mydomainConnectionName" connectionString="ldap://domaincontroller.mydomain.com:389/OU=MyRegion,OU=Locations,DC=mydomain,DC=com" />
More information on this is available in the AD documentation, but the other relevant bits are the other parts I want to touch on are the membership providers. Since we’re using the AD user, we can avoid the need to use the user/pass and simply place our declarations in the web.config. Now there are 2 parts to this and the first is the system.web area starting in the membership area around line 3300 (in a more or less clean config file) and should look something like this. Notice that my connectionStringName is the name I gave it in the connectionString name declaration. The provider name does not match and does not have to. Notice also that in my provider declaration for the Sitecore item, the realProviderName has been changed to be “switcher” rather than SQL. Notice also that I’m not putting in the full string as defined in the AD documentation as some of that refer to options for resetting passwords and such and I choose to put only the essentials:
<membership defaultProvider="sitecore" hashAlgorithmType="SHA1">
<add name="sitecore" type="Sitecore.Security.SitecoreMembershipProvider, Sitecore.Kernel" realProviderName="switcher" providerWildcard="%" raiseEvents="true"/>
<add name="sql" type="System.Web.Security.SqlMembershipProvider" connectionStringName="core" applicationName="sitecore" minRequiredPasswordLength="1" minRequiredNonalphanumericCharacters="0" requiresQuestionAndAnswer="false" requiresUniqueEmail="false" maxInvalidPasswordAttempts="256"/>
<add name="switcher" type="Sitecore.Security.SwitchingMembershipProvider, Sitecore.Kernel" applicationName="sitecore" mappings="switchingProviders/membership"/>
<add name="ad" type="LightLDAP.SitecoreADMembershipProvider" connectionStringName="mydomainConnectionName" applicationName="sitecore" connectionProtection="Secure" attributeMapUsername="sAMAccountName" enableSearchMethods="true" />
<roleManager defaultProvider="sitecore" enabled="true">
<add name="sitecore" type="Sitecore.Security.SitecoreRoleProvider, Sitecore.Kernel" realProviderName="switcher" raiseEvents="true"/>
<add name="sql" type="System.Web.Security.SqlRoleProvider" connectionStringName="core" applicationName="sitecore"/>
<add name="switcher" type="Sitecore.Security.SwitchingRoleProvider, Sitecore.Kernel" applicationName="sitecore" mappings="switchingProviders/roleManager"/>
Don’t forget this part per the AD module documentation:
The connectionProtection attribute set to Secure requires that you add one more element to the <system.web> section. You can place it anywhere inside this section:
<!-- Machine key attributes -->
<machineKey validationKey="BDDFE367CD36AAA81E195761BEFB073839549FF7B8E34E42C0DEA4600851B0065856B211719ADEFC76F3F3A556BC61A5FC8C9F28F958CB1D3BD8EF9518143DB6" decryptionKey="0DAC68D020B8193DF0FCEE1BAF7A07B4B0D40DCD3E5BA90D" validation="SHA1" />
Configuring the Content Delivery Server
This used to be very similar to setting up the content management server. This is absolutely NOT the case any longer. To start off, being outside the domain, per a LOT of research, unless you have some way of setting up a trust relationship (which most domain admins are not willing to do), the only option is a local windows user that has access to the SQL box and then you have to obfuscate your connection information. There may be some tricks out there or this may work a different way in older versions of Windows, but per Microsoft, if using Windows Server 2008 and SQL Server 2008, the only way recommended approach is the following and I couldn’t get anything else to work.
First, we’re going to create a mirrored local account that matches what we used on the SQL box. This may or may not be necessary, but we did it this way because in connecting to the SQL box at all via TCP/IP connection on a specific port, we couldn’t seem to get this to work until we used our local SQL account. If anyone knows why this is, please let me know. Anyway, we made our 2 SQL accounts the same on the CD and SQL box. Then, as above, we added this user to the IIS group and ran the aspnet_regiis.exe with the -ga switch for the local SQL user to give it system account permissions.
Next thing was to actually install Sitecore and this is the same as the content manager server. Then we set the app pool to run as this local identity. The next thing is that because we had to use a specific port (such as 1436 instead of 1433) and we don’t need to access the master db, in the connection strings, we edited our connection strings so that the port is specified with a comma behind the server name. You can use an IP address instead of a domain name, by the way, but we went with specifying the domain name and adding an entry in the hosts file so that we could easily change the database that it pointed to on the fly without the need to decrypt the connection string. It looked like this this to start:
<add name="analytics" connectionString="user id=CDUser;password=myPassword;Data Source=myDatabase.myDomain.com, 1436;Database=Sitecore_analytics"/>
<add name="core" connectionString="user id=CDUser;password=myPassword;Data Source=myDatabase.myDomain.com, 1436;Database=Sitecore_Core"/>
<add name="web" connectionString="user id=CDUser;password=myPassword;Data Source=myDatabase.myDomain.com, 1436;Database=Sitecore_Web_Prod"/>
Next, we run a command that encrypts and decrypts the connection string file with the aspnet_regiis.exe tool. The -pe and -pd switch or used for encrypting and decrypting, but we also add the additional f to signify that the encryption should be on a file and then the path to the ROOT of the website (do not put the path to the file itself.. just the path to the “website” folder is required). Now, one thing to mention is that anyone who has access to the file system and knows how to decrypt can run this and see your credentials. I’m sure I don’t have to tell anyone that it’s best to have a method in place to push files without the need to have developers on the box.
C:\Windows\Microsoft.NET\Framework64\v4.0.30319\aspnet_regiis.exe -pef "connectionStrings" C:\inetpub\wwwroot\Sitecore\Website
C:\Windows\Microsoft.NET\Framework64\v4.0.30319\aspnet_regiis.exe -pdf "connectionStrings" C:\inetpub\wwwroot\Sitecore\Website
When it’s encrypted it should look something like this:
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<EncryptedData Type="http://www.w3.org/2001/04/xmlenc#Element" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2001/04/xmlenc#">
<EncryptionMethod Algorithm="http://www.w3.org/2001/04/xmlenc#tripledes-cbc" />
<EncryptionMethod Algorithm="http://www.w3.org/2001/04/xmlenc#rsa-1_5" />
Now, all that is left is to test things out and to finish up the process to secure the CD server via the scaling guide. There’s a lot to that and this article won’t cover it.
Also, as I pointed out before, I did things here based on my own experiences. There may have been some configuration that was done on the server/network side that I wasn’t aware of, but to the best of my knowledge, this is, step by step, what I did and what worked. Please feel free to correct something I’ve done or said that should have been done another way. I’m still learning and just simply wanted to share my experiences.